Mahatma Gandhi: He is Father of our nation and perhaps the greatest revolutionary ever. After spending 21 years in South Africa, he returned to India in 1915 and became the leader of the Indian nationalist movement, campaigning for home rule or Swaraj. He preached non-violent method of protest to gain independence and called for inner self- discipline among people. His major social movements include Non-cooperation movement in 1922, Civil disobedience movement, Salt ‘Satyagrah’ in 1930 and Quit India movement in 1942. He was the apostle of peace who preached ideology of ahimsa or non-violence. He fought against the communal hatred between Hindus and Muslims and helped people suffering from communal riots.The ideology and philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi is a way of life for generations to come.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh: He was one of the most vibrant revolutionary during the national movement. At a very young age he got involved in revolutionary movement. In 1926, Bhagat Singh founded the 'Naujavan Bharat Sabha (Youth Society of India) and joined the Hindustan Republican Association (later known as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association). He called for total independence from the British rule.His mentor Lala Lajpat Rai was wounded and died protesting against the Simon Commission.
To avenge his death, Bhagat Singh and Rajguru killed Saunders (one of the deputy officers in connection with the Simon Commission).Both he and his party were against "Trade Union Dispute Bill" and "Public Safety Bill". He decided to oppose these bills by throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall, although it was not meant to injure any one. However he was arrested and on March 23, 1931, he was hanged to death along with Shivram Rajguru, and Sukhdev. His act of sacrifice and devotion to motherland will always inspire generations to come.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose: He was the most selfless and courageous leader from Bengal. He joined active politics during non-co-operation movement led by Gandhi. In 1938, he became the President of the Indian National Congress and was so popular that he was again elected President in 1939 in spite of the opposition. To counter the British forces, he formed the Indian National Army, famously known as ‘Azad Hind Fauz’. ‘Give me blood. I will give you freedom’.
This was his call to his country men who wanted to attain freedom from unjust British rule. For his extraordinary courage, mental and moral strength to venture he became famous as ‘Netaji’. Generations to come will remember Bose for his strong will and determination to fight all odds in the service of the nation.
Jawaharlal Nehru: He was one of the most prominent figures of Indian politics and Indian National Movement, when India was struggling for independence against the British under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1916, Nehru participated in the Lucknow Session of the Congress where both extremist and moderate leaders of the Congress agreed to Swaraj or self rule.
In 1921 Nehru was imprisoned for participating in the first civil disobedience campaign. He was elected to preside over the momentous Lahore session of the Congress in 1929 and it was here that the resolution on Poorna Swaraj (total independence) was adopted. He was secular and scientific in his approach towards social issues. He was the first Prime Minister of the Indian Union and adorned this post till the last moment of his life.
Chandrashekhar Azad: He fought against the tyranny of British with fierce patriotism and courage. He was the mentor Bhagat Singh and an inspiration for other freedom fighters. As a revolutionary, he adopted the last name Azad, which means "Free" in Urdu. There is an interesting story that while he adopted the name "Azad" he made a pledge that the Police will never capture him alive.
He was most famous for The Kakori Rail Dacoity in 1925 and the assassination of the assistant superintendent of Police John Poyantz Saunders in 1928. Along with fellow patriots like Rajguru and Sukhdev, Azad and Singh formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, committed to complete Indian independence and socialist principles of for India's future progress. On 27 February 1931 he was encircled by British troops in the Alfred Park, Allahabad because he was betrayed by an informer. He kept on fighting till the last bullet and instead of surrendering he shot himself in the temple.
Lala Lajpat Rai: One of the important members of the Hindu Maha Sabha, he was the president of the All India trade Union Congress in 1920. He was the leader of Punjab in protests against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and also led the non-cooperation movement in Punjab. He was the strong supporter of the Arya Samaj movement in Punjab.
Leading the demonstration against the Simon Commission he fell prey to the ’lathis’ of the British police and got seriously injured. He prophesized "every blow aimed at me is a nail in the coffin of British imperialism," at the meeting held same evening. Though his injuries were healed but he could not recover completely and succumbed to his injuries.
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel: Also known as the Iron man of India, he launched non-violent Civil Disobedience Movement in Gujarat, by organizing peasants of Kheda, Bardoli and from other parts of Gujarat against the payment of raised tax, levied by the British government. He was a strong supporter of the Non -Cooperation Movement and fought against alcoholism, untouchability and caste discrimination in Gujarat.
He led the Satyagraha in Nagpur in 1923 against the British law, banning the raising of the Indian flag. He was elected as the President of India National Congress in 1931 and was a prominent leader in organising the Quit India Movement in 1942. After India's independence, he became the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India.