The United States and Germany led calls for Russia to be exiled from international competition after the McLaren report said doping in sport in the country represented an "institutional conspiracy".
More than 1,000 athletes in the summer and winter Olympics and Paralympics "can be identified as being involvedin or benefiting from manipulations to conceal positive testing", said Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren.
Drug test samples at the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2014 were even manipulated by the addition of salt and coffee, saidthe report prepared for the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
"It's another staggering example of how the Olympic movement has been corrupted and clean athletes robbed byRussia's state-supported doping system," said Travis Tygart,the head of the US anti-doping body (USADA).
"The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has to act andclean athletes won't be satisfied until WADA is empowered tobe a truly independent global regulator and the RussianOlympic Committee is suspended until deemed code compliant.
"No international sporting events should be held inRussia until its anti-doping program is fully code compliantand all the individuals who participated in the corruption areheld accountable."
The IOC this week extended sanctions against Russia whilethe International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) recently renewed its suspension of the country.
That had already seen the entire Russian track and fieldteam banned from the Rio Olympics in the summer. Clemens Prokop, the president of the German athletics federation (DLV), called for a total ban on all Russian competitors.
"Russian sport should be excluded from all international competitions, including the Olympic Games, until its credibility is restored," said Prokop.
"This is a fundamental attack against the Olympicmovement when the values of the movement are dragged through the mud by a country. Measures taken must be up to the mark.The credibility of the IOC is at stake."
The IOC said it would re-analyse all 254 samples it hasfrom Russian athletes at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.
But Russia remained defiant. "The Russian sports ministry with full responsibilitystates there are no government programmes to support doping insport," said a statement in response to the McLaren report.