The French Pacific islands of New Caledonia were voting Sunday on whether to become an independent nation, in a closely-watched test of support for France in one of its many territories scattered around the globe.
Some 18,000 kilometres (11,000 miles) from the French mainland, New Caledonia is home to a quarter of the world's known supplies of nickel -- a vital electronics component -- and is a strategic foothold for France in the Pacific.
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Voting in New Caledonia's 284 polling stations opened at 8:00 am Sunday (2100 GMT Saturday) and was to end at 6.00 pm, with results expected the same evening.
The participation rate was 73.68 per cent at 5:00 pm, much higher than at the same time during local elections in 2014.
Some 175,000 people are eligible to vote in the remote islands fringed by spectacular beaches, with opinion polls predicting a large majority in favour of staying French.
But there are fears the referendum could inflame tensions between indigenous Kanak people, who tend to favour independence, and the white population, which boiled over into deadly violence in the 1980s.
The quasi-civil war claimed more than 70 lives. It led to the 1998 Noumea Accord which paved the way for the steady devolution of powers as well as Sunday's referendum.
Separatists have urged Kanak voters to choose self-determination for Kanaky, their name for New Caledonia, and throw off the shackles of "colonial" authorities in Paris.
"It's a great day for us. My father, my grandfather fought for this country and today is the second fight in the ballot box," said pro-independence supporter Patrick Watrone on Sunday, dressed in the colours of Kanak flag.
"Today, us young Kanaks, we have no jobs. If we are the ones who manage the country, we will have more opportunities," said Fabrice Ude, 28.
But indigenous people make up less than 50 per cent of the electorate and some Kanaks back staying part of France, not least due to the 1.3 billion euros (USD 1.5 billion) the French state hands to the islands every year.
Going it alone, "I'm not sure we have all the assets we'd need to succeed," said Marc Gnipate, a 62-year-old pensioner.
Michaele Mikena, 61, also "voted no. I'm not afraid of independence, but I am attached to France, I owe it a lot".
Polls suggest 63 to 75 per cent of voters will opt against breaking away from France, which claimed the islands in 1853 and once used them as a penal colony.
Under the 1998 deal, in the event of a "no" vote two further referendums on independence can still be held before 2022.
French President Emmanuel Macron, who is due to give a televised address after the results, has largely stayed clear of the campaign but during a visit to Noumea in May he declared "France would be less beautiful without New Caledonia".
He also raised concerns over increasing Chinese influence in the Pacific, where Beijing has invested heavily in Vanuatu, a territory which broke from France and Britain in 1980.
Accusing the US of "turning its back on the region in recent months", Macron said China was "building its hegemony step by step" in the Pacific -- suggesting an independent New Caledonia could provide Beijing's next foothold.
Australia has also expressed concerns about China's activities in neighbouring island states -- which the Lowy Institute think-tank estimates received USD 1.78 billion in aid from Beijing from 2006-16 -- boosting its own spending in response. Home to 269,000 people, New Caledonia is one of a handful of French island outposts -- a legacy of the country's 19th-century empire -- which retain strategic importance.
The referendum will be a test of the appeal of remaining part of France for such far-flung territories, which are heavily dependent on state handouts but where many feel overlooked by Paris.
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Both French Guiana in South America and the Indian Ocean archipelago of Mayotte have been rocked since last year by major protests over living standards and perceived neglect. In New Caledonia, there are fears that the vote could expose tensions over stark inequalities which persist despite government efforts to redress the economic balance in favour of Kanaks.
The Kanak community is plagued by high school dropout rates, chronic unemployment and poor housing conditions.
Gangs of delinquent youths have become increasingly common on the streets and both sides fear violence among them if the "no" vote prevails.